January, 2023

The WAGS Word

Happy New Year and welcome to the first 2023 edition of the WAGS newsletter.

It appears that January has kicked off with a strong tradeshow season! It has been a great start to the year and nice to be able to see so many of our customers face to face.

The Banff Pork Seminar a week ago was a great place to catch up with many in our industry and see some great speakers. Of note, Brett Stuart from Global Agritrends gave a great overview of the current global economic situation and how it may impact the swine market. In short, North America is shorter pigs and cattle than usual and has a lower price than many competing production regions around the globe. At the same time, sentiments are that the commodity supercycle is breaking and commodity prices will fall. While timing is never certain, these factors coming together at the right time could be helpful to livestock margins in 2023.

Other presentations of note were some great talks by Joaquin Sanchez Zannatta and Malachy Young who spoke about the nutritional value of hybrid barley varieties and best operating practices for on-farm feedmills, respectively. If you missed them, be sure to get in touch with Dan or Joaquin and they would be happy to walk through these with you.

If you were in Montana last week at either the MAGIE or the Montana Pork Trade Show, you would have seen our booths at both events. Jake Adams manned our MAGIE booth with information about cattle mineral to kick off our beef program in Montana. Please call the WAGS Great Falls warehouse and ask Jake for more information on this!

Thank you for your business and your trust in our team.

Commodity Price Update

Grain and protein prices gained volatility over the past months due to adverse weather, especially because of the freezing temperatures in the US and lack of rain in Argentina. The reduced estimates for soybean and corn ending stocks in the US have also driven a bullish trend recently. However, increasing supplies across Western Canada and cheap offers from the Black Sea region are still capping the current upside risks for grains. On the other hand, protein prices are rising strongly due to concerns surrounding global and local availability.

The sanctions imposed on Russian crude oil output and the optimism surrounding Chinese demand is providing support for crude oil prices. After reaching levels under $80 USD early in 2023, Brent crude oil futures are trading around $85 USD. Crude oil is expected to remain volatile following COVID cases in China, and the Russia and Ukraine war. On top of that, the US Federal Reserve (Fed) has also revived recession worries by signaling more interest rate rises to contain inflation.

The Canadian dollar weakened over the past month following Fed’s policy rate actions and lower crude oil prices. Canada’s economy grew by 0.1% in October, according to a report from Statistics Canada. Following the crude oil trend, the Canadian dollar gained support recently and it is being traded around the 0.74-0.75 level. The CAD could strengthen following the projections of a revival in the overall demand in China after its reopening measures.

Corn futures increased due to the adverse weather in Argentina and the reduced US acreage estimates. However, there are good crop perspectives for the Brazilian second harvest, which is expected to reach the market around May ’23. The Chinese economy and concerns surrounding global demand will be key drivers moving forward. Corn delivered to Saskatoon/SK is being traded around $430 per MT and at $455 delivered to Red Deer/AB.

Wheat prices softened following increasing local availability and cheap supplies from the Black Sea region. The conflict between Russia and Ukraine is still fuelling concerns over supplies. Canada will be an important player supplying wheat to the international market in the following months. Delivered price indications in Red Deer/AB and Saskatoon/SK are at $430 to $435 per MT.

Following the same trend, barley delivery prices in Red Deer/AB are at $410-$420 per MT and at around $395-$400 per MT in Saskatoon/SK. The strong corn imports over the past months and the increasing supplies across Western Canada drove prices down. However, the recent rise on corn futures could reduce its value in feed rations and increase the local demand for barley.

Soybean meal pricing in Red Deer/AB is ranging around $820 per MT. Prices have found support on the Argentina drought, reduced US yields and better perspectives for the Chinese import demand. Argentina’s officials have soybean production declining 7 million metric tonnes this year to 41 million metric tonnes. China is expected to end the year with historically low soymeal carryover stocks. Downside risks are expected once the Brazilian crop reaches the market, which usually happens by the end of Q1.

Canola meal is being traded around $560 per MT in Red Deer/AB. Prices have increased following the soybean meal trend and the lack of local availability for Jan/Feb ’23. On top of that, Canada crush official estimate was trimmed, down 500,000 tonnes from November to 9.5 million. Following the strong protein prices, peas are being traded at $495 per MT delivered in Red Deer/AB.

We expect grain prices to remain volatile as we move to Q1 following the weather uncertainties, global economic outlook and the war in Ukraine. Protein prices could also remain receiving support from the adverse weather in Argentina, but this will depend on the Chinese import demand outlook. The weather in South America will be an important driver for prices moving forward, as Brazilian record harvest could bring some downward pressure to prices.

Synthetic amino acids are still on a downside trend. This trend is mainly due to lower ocean freight costs. On top of that, the market seems to be long for Q1, which should keep prices under pressure. However, certain volatility could be seen due to the recent gains on agricultural commodities prices and following the uncertainty surrounding Chinese economy moving forward.

Zinc Oxide-Free Piglet Diets: Nutritional & Management Strategies

Weaned piglets experience multiple challenges, including separation from the sow, sudden change in the diet, mixing with unfamiliar pigs and new living environment. These abrupt and simultaneous challenges generally reduce feed intake and pig growth immediately after weaning, and negatively impacts the structure, function, and microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). These alterations in the GIT affect nutrient digestion and absorption, while microbiota changes are likely linked to post-weaning diarrhea (PWD) and pathogenic infections (Gresse et al., 2017).

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Figure 1. Beneficial effects and mechanisms of action of zinc oxide in piglets. From Bonetti et al., 2021

High levels of zinc (2,000 to 4,000 ppm) as zinc oxide (ZnO) are commonly used in pre-starter and starter diets to control pathogenic infections, improve growth and survivability in weaned pigs. The exact mechanism of action of high levels of ZnO against diarrhea is not fully understood yet, but studies have shown that zinc helps to regulate fluid transport, integrity, immunity and oxidative stress in the GIT (Figure 1). The basic requirement for zinc in weaned piglets is between 80 and 100 ppm, thus indicating that more than 25 times the basic need of zinc is required to have a pharmacological effective dosage. However, the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) is planning to impose a restriction that will only allow ZnO to be added to piglet diets at levels of 350 ppm. While there is no implementation date yet for this regulation, we need to start exploring nutritional and management strategies to maintain GIT health and reduce post-weaning performance drop in weaned pigs without the use of high levels of ZnO.

Why restrict ZnO in weaned pig diets?
The main concern with the use of high levels of ZnO is soil pollution. Zinc is found in high levels in manure, thus resulting in high levels in soil which may affect the absorption of other trace elements. Moreover, studies have shown that feeding high levels of ZnO may increase the proportion of multi-drug resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli) in the gut of the piglets (Bednor, 2013).

Alternatives for diets without high levels of ZnO
The bacteria causing PWD in pigs are present in our nursery rooms, thus reducing the levels ZnO from the diets will likely result in greater incidence of PWD, increased mortality rates and lower growth performance. Thus, lowering the dietary ZnO levels without making the necessary changes will further increase antibiotic usage, defeating the purpose of reducing ZnO. There is probably not a single product or feed ingredient that can alone replace ZnO. A different approach combining strategies is needed in management and diet formulation in order to maintain pig health, welfare and growth performance.

Management and risk factors strategies
Wean age: Pigs are born with an immature GIT that has not yet fully acquired the 3 important functions of the adult GIT: feed digestion, nutrient absorption, and protection of the pig against pathogens (Figure 2). Increasing weaning age from 15 to 28 days of age reduces intestinal permeability and improves immune barrier function, reducing pathogenic infections and disease. Pigs weaned at young ages have compromised immune response to pathogens or stressors later in life, potentially affecting their lifetime performance (Moeser et al., 2017). Studies have shown that wean to finish performance improves as weaning age increases to at least 25 days of age. Weaning weight increased by 0.25 to 0.26 kg for each day increase in weaning age while wean to finish mortality decreased (Main et al., 2005; Faccin et al., 2020).

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Figure 2. Development of the gastrointestinal tract of pigs (Moeser et al., 2017).

Creep feeding: Post-weaning anorexia, together with the immature digestive and immune systems of the weaned pig, increases disease susceptibility and mortality. Creep feeding can help to familiarize pigs with solid food prior to weaning. In a study by Shea et al (2012), offering creep feed in the crate 7 days before weaning increased nursery exit weights and daily feed intake compared to pigs that were not offered creep. Creep also increased the weaning weights of piglets when they are weaned at 28d of age or older, and there were more pigs classified as “eaters” in pigs weaned at d28 (34%) than d21 (4%).

Environment: Weaned pigs are vulnerable to pathogenic microorganisms and thus, cleaning and disinfecting the rooms help to reduce the concentration and transmission of these microorganisms from the environment. Cleaning up should start as soon as the nursery room is empty to ensure that the room is dry when the next pigs arrive. It is important to remember that residual organic matter like feed or feces reduces the effectiveness of disinfecting agents.

Meeting the thermal needs is important for weaned pigs’ success. Air temperature and airspeed should be in your nursery room checklist. A reduced post-weaning feed intake affects energy intake and the ability of pigs to produce heat, thus, pre-heating the nursery room before pigs arrive is critical. Fresh air and a quality air supply is required to maintain performance but keep an eye on air movement to prevent drafts. Inlets’ airspeed should be about 600 feet per minute at minimum ventilation, so that it’s throwing the air out and not dropping on the pigs. Make sure that the room is tight as air coming through cracks, joints and seams can create micro drafts. Humidity can also impact pig health and his ability to cope in warm temperatures. Research shows for finishing pigs encountering 50 percent relative humidity, a temperature gain from 22° C to 27.5° C caused a 25% growth reduction. Always remember that warm barns can get humid when ventilation rates are reduced. The goal is to give pigs a warm, dry and draft-free environment.

Nutritional strategies
Optimizing the formulation of weaned pig diets can help to mitigate or reduce the incidence of PWD. The selection of ingredients to formulate diets should be the first step and need to consider parameters such as presence of anti-nutritional factors, nutrient digestibility, and feed palatability. Some feeding strategies for managing post-weaning PWD are:

Diet crude protein (CP): The high buffering capacity of solid feed and the low chlorohydric acid production of the stomach of piglets lead to low protein digestion. Undigested protein is fermented in the large intestine causing an overgrowth of pathogenic bacteria such as E. coli.

Undigested proteins also produce osmotic diarrhea. Reducing CP by adding synthetic amino acids (AA) enhanced fecal consistency and decrease PWD incidence even in E. coli infected piglets up to 14 days after weaning (Heo et al., 2010). Certain AA such as threonine and tryptophan have higher requirements for immune system function.

Organic acids (OA): In their role as acidifiers, OA can reduce gastric pH of weaned piglets reducing the buffering capacity of diets, helping with digestion of proteins. Moreover, OA are also used for their antimicrobial activity and ability to improve overall health status of pigs GIT. Lactic, propionic, citric, formic, and caprylic acids supplementation in weaned pigs reduced in intestinal coliform bacteria, modulated the immune response, and an improved diet digestibility (Hanczakowska et al., 2011).

Fiber: Moderate levels of insoluble or inert fibre present in oat hulls, alfalfa, and cereal brans might promote gut health in weaned pigs by enhancing maturation of the GIT, growth of microbiota and by blocking GIT adhesion of pathogenic bacteria (Molist et al., 2014). A combination of fibers resulted in the same growth performance of high levels of ZnO in piglets infected with E. coli (Fernandes et al., 2020).

Prebiotics and probiotics: Prebiotics are ingredients that are selectively fermented by the GIT microbiota and positively affect the host by stimulating the growth or activity of the “good” bacteria of the GIT. Dietary β-glucans decreased pathogenic E. coli colonization and diarrhea in post-weaning piglets (Stuyven et al., 2009). Probiotics are viable microorganisms that reach the intestine and have positive effects for the host through inhibition of pathogens and/or stimulation of host defense systems (Dubreuil et al., 2017). Lactic acid bacteria and yeasts are the most common probiotics. Weaned piglets infected with E. coli showed a reduction of diarrhea incidence when supplemented with Lactobacillus rhamnosus (Zhang et al., 2010).

In conclusion, there is probably not a single product or feed ingredient that can alone replace zinc oxide. A different approach combining strategies is needed in management and diet formulation to modulate gastrointestinal health and mitigate post-weaning diarrhea.

Note: References available upon request.

Notes on early egg size and eggshell quality

Over the years the egg industry in Alberta has faced two predominant issues, one relates to the production of an excessive number of small and medium size eggs which provide much lower economic return as compared to large and extra-large eggs. The second issue is the difficulty to improve egg eggshell quality to reduce the incidence of cracked eggs and consequently improve the grade outs.

Interestingly, the knowledge to optimize egg size has been available for several decades and yet this issue is still a challenge for a number of producers. Factors that influence eggs size, include genetics, nutrition, environment, body weight of the birds at point of lay and lighting programs. Body weights and Lighting programs are simple tools that are controlled at farm level and that when used properly produce noticeable improvements.

Focus, produced in 1991 by Shaver, (originally a Canadian poultry breeding company) and edited by Dr. Peter Hunton, one paragraph states: “By far the most important factor affecting early egg size is body weight at housing” another paragraph reads:“Egg size is consistently increased when lighting programmes are used to delay sexual maturity”. In that publication it is also mentioned that work in the U.K. showed that “late stimulation significantly increases egg weights (19 weeks versus 17 or 15 weeks of age)”.

Based on that information and research from other sources such as Dr. Frank Robinson at the University of Alberta produced over 20 years ago, Western Ag has successfully promoted the idea of evaluating birds body weight at 19 weeks of age and at that point deciding on possibly further delaying light stimulation until the flock achieves a body weight equal of over specified target. In spite of this information being available for many years there seems to be many producers who still are not given the correct advised with the result of not only experiencing prolonged periods of time with excessive number of medium eggs but at the same time having to use high protein diets at a much higher cost.

The second issue addressed at this time relates to eggshell quality. Shell quality is important to preserve the integrity of the eggs as well as their interior quality. The aim is to produce the thickest and strongest possible eggshell to withstand the rigors of gathering, transportation, grading and marketing. The main component of the eggshell, at 95%, is calcium carbonate. It has been determined that the amount of calcium that layer birds are capable of absorbing and depositing on the shell of the eggs is limited to approximately 2 grams per egg, regardless of the size of the egg, this means that as the eggs get bigger with increasing age of the layers, the shell becomes thinner and thus the probability for greater number of cracks is increased. The limitation in the amount of calcium that can be absorbed and deposited on the eggs is probably related to the original purpose of the eggs, which is the formation of chicks to preserve the species. Too strong shells could create an insurmountable challenge for the baby chicks at the time when they need to break the shell and hatch.

It also has been determined that even under the best conditions, the efficiency in the absorption and deposition of calcium from the intestine of the layers declines from 49 weeks of age onward presented with those observations, the objective then becomes to maximize the limited capacity available by optimizing factors that can influence that potential and by eliminating or minimizing factors that can negatively affect the absorption and deposition of calcium such as: gut health, challenges from prevalent diseases and by using adequate proportions of coarse and fine particle size limestone (source of calcium).

It is estimated that 60 to 70% of the calcium used to form the shell comes directly from the diet and the rest is mobilized from the bones. At the time when the sexual maturity of the future layer begins, calcium begins to accumulate inside the bones. This source of calcium can be mobilized during the night and thus complement the calcium coming directly from the diet during the day. The storage of calcium inside the bones is called medullary bone.

A combination of large and small particles of limestone is commonly used in the diets. Small particles are solubilised very rapidly thus, rendering the calcium available for absorption. As the larger particles remain in the gizzard longer than the smaller particles calcium becomes available more gradually and for prolonged periods of time. The availability of the calcium contained in the large particles of limestone is achieved by the grinding action of the gizzard along with the action of acid that makes calcium soluble and ready to be absorbed in the intestine. Feeding a portion of the calcium as coarse limestone not only prevents excessive depletion of medullary bone but it also preserves the integrity of the bones particularly in older birds. Coarse limestone has been defined as particles larger than 0.8 millimetres. Some recommendations go as far as suggesting the use of up to 75% of the calcium as coarse limestone. However the particle size can vary greatly depending on the source and suppliers. It would be expected that with very large particle size a smaller proportion of this source would be needed and conversely with a size closer to 1 mm a greater amount could be included in the feed.

The most efficient levels of calcium in diets for layers birds have been studied extensively throughout the years. In a rather recent study conducted in 2018 at the University of Guelph with 74 weeks old Lohmann LSL-lite layers several level of calcium and additional levels of vitamin D3 were evaluated. In the study it was determined that intakes between 4.1 to 4.2 grams of calcium per bird per day produced the thickest and strongest eggshell, whereas lower and higher amounts of calcium deteriorated eggshell thickness and strength. In this study it was also found that absorption of calcium in birds) beyond the level used in the base diet (3300 IU/kg) did not improve shell thickness or strength. In the field, occasionally supplementation of vitamin D3, particularly Hy-D, through the water has resulted in improvements in shell quality which may be related to local conditions such as gut health and or disease challenges or situations where the utilization of the vitamin D3 provided in the feed might have been sub optimal. A common source of vitamin D3 used in feeds is actually a precursor of the vitamin and is called cholecalciferol which upon transformations in the liver and kidneys becomes the active form of vitamin D3. It is possible that in some circumstances these transformations might be negatively affected.

Note: References available upon request.

Camelina meal for dairy cows

Camelina has been known for many years and the interest on Camelina crop has grown in the last 15 years, regaining credibility as a relatively low-input oilseed crop. Camelina crop does well under dry growing conditions and very well with some moisture, and further common crop diseases and pests are reported minimum on this crop. Camelina is relatively easy to seed and to harvest, and with processors and markets looking for camelina today, it has potential to deliver a decent net return per acre. There is a huge interest in camelina production across North America to produce an oil that can be used in the biofuel industry. Camelina is not just a one-trick oilseed for biofuel but having an oil high in omega-3 fatty acids, camelina oil is considered as a healthy vegetable oil, simply to use as a supplement for horses and companion animals and in aquaculture diets, and it also produces a byproduct meal (expeller) with a good fit in poultry and other livestock rations as a protein source. Independent feeding experiments have also approved the use of camelina meal in poultry rations, and recently in dairy rations (1).

Proteins: Camelina meal is a by-product of biodiesel production and potentially can be used as a protein source for ruminant livestock (1). In western Canada and parts of the USA, canola meal is the major source of protein in dairy cows diets. When compared with canola meal, camelina meal contains more CP (45 vs. 37%; 2). Also, camelina meal contains more rumen undegradable protein (RUP) than canola meal (31.6 vs. 27.5% of CP; 3), which might improve ruminal nitrogen utilization. In addition, studies have demonstrated that the total-tract digestibility of camelina meal is similar to that of canola meal and soybean meal (4).

Fat: Camelina seed is cold-pressed to extract oil for biofuel production, so camelina meal typically contains 10 to 12% residual oil (5), which is greater than that in canola meal (3.3%; Canola Council of Canada).Adding camelina meal to the diet can, therefore, increase the caloric density which may be desirable for high-producing cows. Also, camelina oil is high in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), with linoleic (C18:2n6; 10 to 20% of residual oil) and linolenic (C18:3n3; 20 to 40%) acids being the major PUFA (4). These fatty acids yield desirable intermediates during ruminal biohydrogenation, such as C18:2 trans-10, cis-12 and C18:2 cis-9, trans-11, which can potentially enhance the health benefits of bovine milk to consumers (4)

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Table 1. The chemical composition of camelina meals from different plants and typical canola meal. Adopted from Mutsvangwa et al 2022 (8).

Canadian Study: A study conducted at the University of Saskatchewan has evaluated the effects of feeding graded levels of camelina meal as a partial or complete replacement for canola meal on production, thyroid function, and sensory properties of milk in dairy cows fed barley silage-based diets that are typically fed in western Canada and parts of the USA. Holstein dairy cows were used to evaluate the effects of feeding camelina meal as a partial or complete replacement for canola meal on dry matter intake (DMI, feed intake), milk yield, milk fatty acid profiles and sensory properties, and thyroid function. In these experiments, cows were housed individually and assigned to one of the four diets in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square experimental design aiming strong statistical accuracy in the findings.

Diets: The experimental diet mentioned here is the grain ration portion of total mixed ration and the diets in the first part of the study were
1) 0% camelina meal (control, 20% canola meal as the major source of protein)
2) 5% camelina meal
3) 7.5% camelina meal and
4) 10% camelina meal.

The diets in the second part were
1) 0% camelina meal (control)
2) 10% camelina meal
3) 15% camelina meal and
4) 20% camelina meal.

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Figure 3. Camelina meal.

In all the diets, camelina meal partially or completely replaced canola meal as the major protein source. For each experiment, diets were isonitrogenous (similar crude protein levels in the diets), and experimental periods were 28 days long.

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Table 2. Dietary effect of camelina meal on dairy cows. Adapted from Mutsvangwa et al 2022 (8).

Findings: The first part of the study showed that feeding camelina meal had no effects on DMI and milk yield. Milk contents and yields of fat, protein, and lactose were unaffected by the dietary inclusion of camelina meal; however, milk urea-nitrogen (MUN) content decreased linearly as dietary inclusion of camelina meal was increased. Feeding up to 10% camelina meal was associated with increasing milk fat contents and yields of C18:2n6, C18:3n3, cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), trans-10, cis-12 CLA, and total CLA. There were statistically significant responses in sensory properties of milk as dietary camelina meal levels increased. Plasma concentrations of triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) were unaffected by diet. In the second part of the study, DMI, milk yield, milk fat, milk protein decreased, as dietary inclusion of camelina meal increased. MUN content also decreased, with increasing dietary levels of camelina meal. Milk fat contents of total C18:1, C18:2n-6, C18:3n-3, cis-9, trans-11 CLA, and trans-10, cis-12 CLA and total CLA increased when higher levels of camelina meal were fed. No dietary effects were observed for milk sensory properties, and plasma concentrations of T3 and T4. Collectively, these results demonstrate that camelina meal can be mixed in dairy cow diets up to 10% without any detrimental effects on production; however, inclusion levels more than 10% might not be economically viable for producers due to negative effects on production.

The inclusion of camelina meal up to 10% in barley silage-based diets as a partial replacement for canola meal had no detrimental effects on feed intake, milk yield and milk components (8). However, when the inclusion level of camelina meal was increased up to 20%, was depressive on feed intake, milk yield, and milk fat (8). Therefore, from an economic standpoint, the decrease in milk yield is undesirable for farmers. Also, in the Canadian milk market in which producer pricing is based on milk component yields with fat attracting the greatest price, the decrease in milk fat yield is also undesirable for economic reasons. In both studies, feeding camelina resulted in important alterations in milk fatty acid composition which were mainly characterized by increases in the content and yield of desirable omega-3 fatty acids such as C18:3n3 and CLA isomers (particularly cis-9, trans-11 CLA) that have been demonstrated to have human health benefits. This is an important finding as it shows that feeding camelina meal to cows could be a way to change the fatty acid composition favorable to the consumer, thus making it more appealing to today’s health-conscious consumers. However, more research is suggested by the authors to decipher the effects of feeding camelina meal on sensory properties of milk, based on the surprising observation that feeding camelina meal up to 10% affected sensory properties of milk however feeding levels lower than 10% did not. Taken together, the results from these studies indicate that camelina meal can be fed up to 10% of DM as a substitute for canola meal in barley without negatively affecting production or animal health; however, dietary inclusion levels higher than 10% would be uneconomical from a practical standpoint as they result in lower production.

Note: References available upon request.


1st Wymark Farming Company Ltd.
3rd Hillridge Farming Co.
4th Vanguard Farming Co.
7th Raley Colony Ltd.
9th Bert Dunsbergen
10th New Dale Hutterian Brethren

2nd Sand Lake Farming Co. Ltd.
3rd New Dale Hutterian Brethren
5th Sovereign Farming Company


Lean Percent target
1st Wymark Farming Company Ltd.
3rd Vanguard Farming Co. Ltd.
Core Area and Sort
% in Core Area
1st Hillridge Farming Co.
3rd Bert Dunsbergen
5th Raley Colony Ltd.
6th New Dale Hutterian Brethren

Carcass Wt. Target
1st Raley Colony Ltd.
2nd New Dale Hutterian Brethren
3rd Hillridge Farming Co.
5th Vanguard Farming Co.
7th Wymark Farming Company Ltd.

Congratulations and well done! WAGS is proud to be the nutrition provider in your barns.


A life-long city man, tired of the rat race, decided he was going to give up the city life, move to the country, and become a chicken farmer. He found a nice, used chicken farm, which he bought. Turns out that his next-door neighbor was also a chicken farmer. The Neighbor came for a visit one day and said, “Chicken farming isn’t easy. Tell you what. To help you get started, I’ll give you 100 chickens.”

The new chicken farmer was thrilled. Two weeks later the new neighbor stopped by to see how things were going. The new farmer said, “Not too good. All 100 chickens died.”

The neighbor said, “Oh, I can’t believe that. I’ve never had any trouble with my chickens. I’ll give you 100 more.”

Another two weeks went by, and the neighbor stops in again. The new farmer says, “You’re not going to believe this, but the second 100 chickens died too.”

Astounded, the neighbor asked, “what went wrong? What did you do to them?”

Well, says the new farmer, “I’m not sure whether I’m planting them too deep or not far apart enough.”

Adapted from: www.jokestimes.com


David Borsboom – Sales Manager
Harry Korthuis – Sales Manager
Darcy MacDonald – Sales Manager
David Raynard – Sales Manager
Doug Richards – Sales Manager
Tony Rock – Sales Manager
Gordon Van Dasselaar – Sales Manager
Denni Van Dasselaar-Sales Manager
Anne Dyck-Office Assistant, Lethbridge, Alberta
Hailey Moors – Office Manager, Lethbridge, Alberta

Darlene Thorburn – Office Coordinator, Swift Current, Saskatchewan
Jake Adams– Warehouse Coordinator, Great Falls, Montana
Saman Abeysekara – Ruminant Nutritionist
Benjamin Londono – Poultry Nutritionist
Darren MacLeod – Swine Nutritionist
Mario Rebolledo – Poultry Nutritionist
Joaquin Sanchez Zannatta – Swine Nutritionist
Danilo Sotto – Swine Nutritionist
Tom Dowler – General Manager